A raised edge 0. Fthl17 is the one germ-cell-specific mouse gene we examined for which the human homologue maps well within the XRA Fig. Despite high prevalence neural immune disorders, their etiology molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. He is the author or coauthor of over 10 books and more than research publications. This may indicate that low rather than high OTR binding in the lateral septum is important for social affiliation.
In this scenario, social context-dependent input from the hippocampus to the lateral septum may have modulated the ability of AVP and OXT systems to alter lateral septum activity resulting in context-specific effects of V1aR antagonist, AVP, OTR antagonist, and OXT treatments on social play behavior. The final number of rats for each group is indicated in the first row of graphs in Figures 2 — 4. Our data demonstrate that, like sex-linked housekeeping genes, germ-cell-specific sex-linked genes are subject to meiotic sex-chromosome inactivation MSCI. Behavior was measured by means of a video camera mounted above the maze and scored in an adjacent room by a researcher blind to the treatment condition using JWatcher. Fthl17 is the one germ-cell-specific mouse gene we examined for which the human homologue maps well within the XRA Fig. Indeed, social play behavior in rodents typically has been tested in only one social context, i. Sex-specific responses to AVP and OXT manipulations in rodents have been reported for behaviors other than juvenile social play, including aggression Ferris and Potegal, ; Gutzler et al. These findings indicate that sex and social context are important factors to consider in how AVP and OXT modulate social play behavior and, most likely, other social behaviors as well. In conclusion, we have shown that AVP and OXT systems in the lateral septum regulate social play behavior in juvenile rats. All tests were videotaped for subsequent analysis of behavior by a researcher blind to the treatment condition using JWatcher http: Thus, 13 of the 14 sex-linked genes we examined showed some degree of postmeiotic reactivation. The XY body is manifest as a non-membrane-bound, darkly staining region of the nucleus in primary spermatocytes. At the end of the experiments, rats were killed with CO2, and charcoal was injected as a marker to check proper placement of the cannulae into the lateral septum histologically on Nissl-stained coronal brain sections. Rats received either 0. This indicates that AVP alters novel cage social play behavior via mechanisms different from those that alter elevated plus-maze behavior. In this study, we have taken advantage of our ability to recover relatively pure populations of specific premeiotic, meiotic and postmeiotic spermatogenic cell types to examine expression patterns of germ-cell-specific sex-linked and autosomal genes during spermatogenesis in the mouse. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. No such negative stimuli were present in our study when female juvenile rats were exposed in their home cage to an unfamiliar juvenile rat. It was recently hypothesized that MSCI may lead directly to repression of genes on the paternal X-chromosome in the trophectoderm, primitive endoderm and early embryo proper following fertilization. Because AVP typically enhances Landgraf et al. Showcase discover latest work from top online portfolios creative professionals across industries. The function of MSCI in spermatogenic cells remains an enigma. No two of these hypotheses are mutually exclusive. The dashed areas in the diagrams indicate the area of correct placement of microinjections. It is unknown, however, whether OXT via OTR in the lateral septum modulates social play behavior, and if so, whether it acts in sex-specific ways. Indeed, several of the above-mentioned studies have in common that OXT potentiated fear in response to negative social stimuli.
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