Holland , Hainaut , Flanders , Gelre , Brabant , and Utrecht were in a state of almost continual war or paradoxically formed personal unions. Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten between and Wealthy cities started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign. The rest of Frisia in the north now Friesland and Groningen continued to maintain its independence and had its own institutions collectively called the " Frisian freedom " and resented the imposition of the feudal system. The subsequent phase was that of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields, following the customs of the Urnfield culture — BC. The deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around BC, that further deteriorated around BC, might have triggered migration of Germanic tribes from the North.
Although in the southwest, the Seine-Oise-Marne culture related Vlaardingen culture c. Burgundian and Spanish Habsburg Netherlands — [ edit ]. In practice, this meant that Brugge and Antwerp became quasi-independent republics in their own right and would later develop into some of the most important cities and ports in Europe. By the s, Clovis I had conquered and united all these territories in the southern Netherlands in one Frankish kingdom , and from there continued his conquests into Gaul. Around AD, due to several agricultural developments, the economy started to develop at a fast pace, and the higher productivity allowed workers to farm more land or to become tradesmen. By the time this migration was complete, around BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groups had emerged. Most of present-day Netherlands became part of Middle Francia , which was a weak kingdom and subject of numerous partitions and annexation attempts by its stronger neighbours. Of the subsequent Bell Beaker culture — BC several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Iberian peninsula, the Netherlands and Central Europe. The initial phase of the Elp culture was characterised by tumuli — BC that were strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and were apparently related to the Tumulus culture in central Europe. The subsequent phase was that of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields, following the customs of the Urnfield culture — BC. After he died in , Lotharingia was partitioned, into Upper and Lower Lotharingia , the latter part comprising the Low Countries that technically became part of East Francia in , although it was effectively under the control of Vikings, who raided the largely defenceless Frisian and Frankish towns lying on the Frisian coast and along the rivers. One of these local nobles was Gerolf of Holland , who assumed lordship in Frisia after he helped to assassinate Godfrid, and Viking rule came to an end. The language and culture of most of the people who lived in the County of Holland were originally Frisian. By the seventh century a Frisian Kingdom — under King Aldegisel and King Redbad emerged with Utrecht as its centre of power,   while Dorestad was a flourishing trading place. The Cod faction consisted of the more progressive cities, while the Hook faction consisted of the conservative noblemen. The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by the sea and the rivers that constantly shifted the low-lying geography. However, his successor Boniface was murdered by the Frisians in Dokkum , in High Middle Ages — [ edit ] Main article: The many finds in Drenthe of rare bronze objects, suggest that it was even a trading centre in the Bronze Age — BC. However, as of , it was divided into three parts— East , Middle , and West Francia. He established the Archdiocese of Utrecht and became bishop of the Frisians. The Viking raids made the sway of French and German lords in the area weak. History of urban centers in the Low Countries The Holy Roman Empire the successor state of East Francia and then Lotharingia ruled much of the Low Countries in the 10th and 11th century, but was not able to maintain political unity. Powerful local nobles turned their cities, counties and duchies into private kingdoms, that felt little sense of obligation to the emperor. The rest of Frisia in the north now Friesland and Groningen continued to maintain its independence and had its own institutions collectively called the " Frisian freedom " and resented the imposition of the feudal system. Bronze Age cultures in the Netherlands. Coastal lands remained largely unpopulated for the next two centuries.
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