The Z-scores can be calculated by the following equation: Android and gynoid regions were automatically obtained using the software provided by the manufacturer. In previous studies, FMI was widely used to screen individuals with obesity-risk diseases [ 6 , 7 ], and LMI especially in limbs has been applied as an important index for diagnosis of sarcopenia [ 8 , 9 ]. Indices of body fat distribution were included in the analysis as previously described: Moreover, DXA has the ability to measure on both a regional and whole-body basis with the advantages of low cost, low radiation dose, and high precision [ 10 ]. Measurements of LM and FM in absolute values fail to allow appropriate comparisons among subjects of different sizes. Moreover, ethnic differences in body fat distribution exist in adults [ 11 , 12 , 18 ]. Anthropometry and body composition measurement A research physician obtained information on medical history and medication use in a personal interview. This paradoxical finding conveyed the necessity for additional adiposity measures to supplement BMI in assessing health risk, such as measures of body fat distribution that are more strongly associated with risk factors for obesity-related diseases than total fat mass [ 17 ].
A secondary aim was to compare the body composition indices of the Chinese population with those of other ethnic populations. All subjects provided written informed consent to participate in the study, which was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University. The most advanced and comprehensive reference values for body composition are age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific and have been published as percentiles derived from the US NHANES data [ 11 , 12 ]. Therefore, some studies have proposed the use of lean mass index LMI and fat mass index FMI normalized to height as superior measures of nutritional status [ 5 ]. Ultimately, men and women were included in our study. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This paradoxical finding conveyed the necessity for additional adiposity measures to supplement BMI in assessing health risk, such as measures of body fat distribution that are more strongly associated with risk factors for obesity-related diseases than total fat mass [ 17 ]. Body composition, Percentile curves, Body fat distribution, Nutritional assessment, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry Introduction Assessment of nutritional status provides a useful predictor of health risk and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention in public health and clinical nutrition [ 1 , 2 ]. Indices of body fat distribution were included in the analysis as previously described: Thus, ethnicity-specific percentile curves of body fat distribution indices would further assist in the assessment of nutritional status in adults. Received Oct 22; Accepted Jul The failure to differentiate between lean mass LM and fat mass FM limits the usefulness of BMI, which may lead to significant misclassification of nutrition status when applied to individuals [ 4 ]. All DXA measurements were taken by the same trained technologist throughout the study. Subjects were excluded if they met any of the following criteria: BMI has been widely used in epidemiological studies and clinical practice to provide a quick assessment of nutritional status [ 3 ]. Height and body weight were obtained based on standard methods; height was measured without shoes to the nearest 0. Unpaired-sample t tests were conducted to evaluate the significance of the mean difference between males and females. Android and gynoid regions were automatically obtained using the software provided by the manufacturer. Methods Study population The participants were recruited from a body composition and osteoporosis study at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University Guangzhou, China from to The Z-scores can be calculated by the following equation: Each percentile changing distribution is summarized by three curves representing the skewness L , the median M , and the coefficient of variation S as these change with the independent variable age [ 19 ]. However, BMI represents the sum of total body composition. From these measurements, the following derivative values were calculated: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA is an accurate and reliable method for assessing body composition, and is capable of separating body mass into LM and FM [ 10 ]. Results The aLMI and LMI were negatively associated with age, decreasing from the fifth decade for males, but were not associated with age in females.
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